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美国损害环境事实清单(中英对照)

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Fact Sheet on Environmental Damage by the US

美国损害环境事实清单

As the most advanced developed country in the world today, the United States has a poor track record in the environmental field. It has not only backpedaled on its domestic environmental protection policies but also seriously undermined the fairness, efficiency and effectiveness of global environmental governance. It is widely viewed as a consensus-breaker and a troublemaker. With regard to what it has done to the environment, the US has yet to justify itself to its own people and to other people in the world.

作为当今世界最先进的发达国家,美国在环境领域劣迹斑斑,不仅在国内环境保护政策上大开“倒车”,还严重损害全球环境治理的公平、效率和成效,是公认的“共识破坏者”和“麻烦制造者”。美国在环境问题上的所作所为,既无法向美国内民众交代,也欠世界人民一个说法。

1. On Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Historically, the US has been the world's largest emitter with the most greenhouse gas emissions in cumulative terms. Between 1751 and 2010, emissions from US energy and industrial sectors accounted for 27.9% of the global total. Cumulative emissions from the US are about three times that of China. Today, the US is the second largest emitter in the world with about 15% of global carbon emissions. In per capita terms, the US has long been among the biggest carbon emitter, registering 14.6 tons of per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel in 2017, 3.3 times the global average and more than twice that of China. The US also has the largest cumulative aviation emissions in the world.

一、温室气体排放 美国是全球历史第一排放大国、全球累积温室气体排放最多的国家,其1751年至2010年间能源和工业部门排放占全球的27.9%,累积排放量约是中国的3倍。美国还是当前第二排放大国,排放全球占比约为15%。美国人均碳排放居高不下,2017年人均化石燃料排放二氧化碳14.6吨,是全球平均水平的3.3倍,中国的2倍多。美国还是全球累积航空碳排放最多的国家。

2. On Climate Change.

二、气候变化

Major retrogression on climate change. The Trump administration has repeatedly called global warming a hoax, challenging the international consensus on climate change. The Trump administration scrapped the Obama administration's Clean Power Plan, kept relaxing environmental restrictions on the development of the fossil fuel industry, and rescinded climate-related policy measures of the executive branch. According to The New York Times, since the Trump administration took office, nearly 70 major environmental policies have been reversed, revoked or otherwise rolled back and more than 30 additional rollbacks are still in progress. This is expected to greatly increase greenhouse gas emissions and the death toll resulted from air pollution. US environmental protection agencies such as the US Natural Resources Defense Council have filed a number of lawsuits against the Trump administration over lowering environmental standards and causing related environmental issues. Due to the negative stance of the US, the leaders' declarations of the G20 summits failed to reach consensus on climate change for three consecutive years starting from 2017, and each time the "19+1" approach was adopted as a compromise.

气候变化立场重大倒退。特朗普政府多次称全球变暖是骗局,挑战国际社会应对气候变化的共识。特朗普政府取消了奥巴马政府的清洁能源计划,持续放松化石能源行业发展相关环境约束,废止美行政部门相关气候变化政策举措。据《纽约时报》统计,特朗普政府执政以来,直接或以其他方式撤销了近70项重大环境政策,还有30多项处于撤销进行中,预计将极大增加美国温室气体排放和空气污染致死人数。美国自然资源保护协会等环保机构针对特朗普政府降低环保标准及相关环保问题提起了多项诉讼。由于美消极立场,2017年以来,二十国集团峰会连续三年领导人宣言无法就气候变化内容达成共识,最后均采取“19+1”模式作为妥协。

Withdrawal from the Paris Agreement. On 1 June 2017, the Trump administration announced that the US would withdraw from the Paris Agreement and cease implementing its Nationally Determined Contributions. On 4 November 2019, the US officially launched the withdrawal procedure. Pursuant to the withdrawal clause, the US will formally withdraw from the Agreement on 4 November 2020, making it the only party to withdraw thus far. The US failure to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement have seriously undermined global climate governance and cooperation.

退出气候变化《巴黎协定》。2017年6月1日,特朗普政府宣布将退出《巴黎协定》,停止实施“国家自主贡献”。2019年11月4日,美正式启动退约程序。按照有关退约条款规定,美将于2020年11月4日正式退出《巴黎协定》,成为迄今为止唯一一个退出《巴黎协定》的缔约方。美国既不批准《京都议定书》,又悍然退出《巴黎协定》,严重破坏全球气候治理与合作。

Insufficient implementation of climate action commitments. After the ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in October 1992, US emissions continued to grow rapidly on an upward trajectory that lasted for 15 years. In 2010, the US pledged to cut its economy-wide carbon emissions by 17% from 2005 levels by 2020. Nevertheless, as of the end of 2018, the US only managed to bring its greenhouse gas emissions 10.2% lower than its 2005 figure, barely meeting its 60% emission reduction target. In 2017, the Trump administration reneged on the US commitment by announcing its refusal to meet its climate action goal of 26-28% emissions reduction below 2005 levels by 2025. For three consecutive years since 2018, the US has refused to fulfill its obligations of submitting Biennial Reports and National Communication.

气候行动承诺落实不彰。自1992年10月批准《联合国气候变化框架公约》以来,美排放量仍持续快速增长,且增长趋势保持了15年之久。2010年,美承诺到2020年将在2005年温室气体排放基础上全经济范围减排17%。但截至2018年底,美温室气体排放量比2005年仅下降10.2%,勉强完成其减排目标的60%。2017年,特朗普政府擅自撕毁承诺,宣布拒不履行“到2025年在2005年温室气体排放基础上排放下降26%-28%”的气候行动目标。自2018年起,美连续三年拒绝履行提交“双a年报告”和“国家信息通报”等义务。

Failure to honor funding commitments. In the history of the Global Environment Fund (GEF), the US holds the largest share of contributions arrears, which stand at US$111 million, or 95.7% of the total arrears. Since taking office, the Trump administration has announced a suspension of US funding to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), and refused to provide the outstanding US$2 billion committed by the Obama administration. The US has repeatedly blocked projects for developing countries citing unfounded reasons such as human trafficking and human rights violations, thus seriously undermining the developing countries' right to use the funding. Since 2018, the US has stacked up over

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